3-D structural geology : a practical guide for surface and - download pdf or read online

By Richard H. Groshong

ISBN-10: 3540310541

ISBN-13: 9783540310549

ISBN-10: 3540654224

ISBN-13: 9783540654223

The booklet contains new fabric, specifically examples of 3D versions and methods for utilizing kinematic versions to foretell fault and ramp-anticline geometry. The e-book is aimed at the pro consumer considering the accuracy of an interpretation and the rate with which it may be acquired from incomplete information. a number of analytical ideas are provided that will be simply applied with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet.

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Extra resources for 3-D structural geology : a practical guide for surface and subsurfaces map interpretation

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As buckled stiff layers become more closely spaced, the wavelengths begin to interfere (Fig. 23) resulting in disharmonic folds. Once the layers are sufficiently closely spaced, they fold together as a multilayer unit. A multilayer unit has a much lower buckling stress and an appreciably shorter wavelength than a single layer of same thickness (Currie et al. 1962). Stiff units, either single layers or multilayers, tend to 15 16 Chapter 1 · Elements of Map-Scale Structure Fig. 22. End-member displacement boundary conditions showing responses related to the mechanical stratigraphy.

A disconformity (Fig. 8c) is an unconformity in which the bedding planes above and below the break are essentially parallel, indicating a significant interruption in the orderly sequence of sedimentary rocks, generally by an interval of erosion (or sometimes of nondeposition), and usually marked by a visible and irregular or uneven erosion surface of appreciable relief. A nonconformity (Fig. 8d) is an unconformity developed between sedimentary rocks and older plutonic or massive metamorphic rocks that had been exposed to erosion before being covered by the overlying sediment.

The high part of a growth structure may be erosional at the same time that the lower parts are depositional. Thickness variations may be the result of differential compaction during and after deposition. 5 · Folds compaction the unit thickness will vary as a function of lithology. Deformation-related thickness changes are usually accompanied by folding, faulting, or both within the unit being mapped. Deformation-related thickness changes are likely to correlate to position within a structure or to structural dip.

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3-D structural geology : a practical guide for surface and subsurfaces map interpretation by Richard H. Groshong

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