By Vincent P. Gutschick
1. sensible Biology and Plant Strategies.- A. useful Biology.- B. the necessities on vegetation of their progress and Function.- C. The Abiotic setting: Plant Autecology.- (i) Resources.- (ii)Resource demanding situations confronted by way of Plants.- D. Adaptive Strategies.- (i) software of the Strategic View.- (ii) Explaining variations, in style and in significance, essentially in Wild Growth.- (iii) Indicating Routes to Crop Improvement.- (iv) Examples of aim capabilities and Adaptations.- E. 4 rules of Adaptive Strategies.- F. The Calculation of lively expenses and Benefits.- (i) 3 varieties of Costs.- (ii) How power expenses have an effect on development and Yield.- (iii) Optimizing the Energetics of a Plant.- G. towards a Quantification of hazard and threat Management.- H. whilst and the way quickly to installation Strategies.- I. Effectiveness and barriers of Strategic Adaptations.- (i) inner and exterior Limitations.- (ii) boundaries to Adaptive Strategies.- J. extra Strategic concerns for the Biotic Environment.- 2. Mineral Nutrition.- A. crucial components within the atmosphere and Their Availability to Plants.- (i) vigorous expenditures of buying Nutrients.- (ii) Soil Processes.- B. 4 kinds of Challenges.- (i) Low Nutrient Availability in Soil.- (ii) Physiological boundaries on inner shipping and Use.- (iii) critical Imbalances between Nutrients.- (iv) Toxicity of Nonnutrients.- C. effects of dietary Challenges.- (i) common and Ecological Challenges.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive Responses, Their expenses and Benefits.- (i) Autecological Responses.- (ii) Responses inside of Plant Communities.- three. Photosynthesis.- A. CO2, Photons, and Their Availability to the Plant.- (i) the elemental Photosynthetic response and Its Constraints.- (ii) CO2 and Water Exchange.- (iii) CO2 and Photon shipping in complete Canopies.- (iv) Measures of Photosynthesis.- (v) web Determinants of Photosynthesis.- B. power and Soil source makes use of: expenditures and Benefits.- (i) charges and advantages in Photosynthesis Alone.- (ii) Optimizing Leaf Energetics: An Example.- (iii) Use of Water and Mineral Nutrients.- (iv) Miscellaneous expenditures and Benefits.- C. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Resources.- (ii) Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) delivery Limitations.- (iv) Nonresource Challenges.- D. results of demanding situations to Photosynthesis.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- E. Adaptive Responses, Their bills and Benefits.- (i) Responses to Low or Erratic source Availability.- (ii) Responses to Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) Responses to move Limitations.- (iv) Responses to Nonresource Challenges.- four. Water Relations.- A. Introduction.- (i) Water in Plant constitution and Function.- (ii) Water power and Terminology.- (iii) Water delivery in Soil.- (iv) Water Uptake via Roots.- (v) Water delivery from Roots to Leaves.- (vi) Water intake in Photosynthesis.- (vii) Cost-Benefit Analyses in Water Use.- B. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Water.- (ii) shipping Limitations.- (iii) extra Water: Flooding.- (iv) Salinity, a Nonresource Hazard.- C. outcomes of Challenges.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive techniques, Their expenditures and Benefits.- (i) suggestions for Low Water Availability.- (ii) techniques of Salt Tolerance.- (iii) ideas of Flood Tolerance.- (iv) Responses inside of Ecosystems.- five. Integrative Processes.- A. New positive factors in long term Coordination of All source Uses.- B. Reproduction.- (i) The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Switch.- (ii) Seeds: Many and Small, or Few and Large?.- (iii) Senescence and source Scavenging.- (iv) Flower and Fruit Abortion.- (v) Pollination.- C. Germination.- D. Morphogenesis, specially Photomorphogenesis.- E. keep an eye on of Biotic Interactions.- (i) Pests and Diseases.- (ii) Symbionts.- (iii) Conspecifics and Their Gene Pool.- References.- Symbols.
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Additional resources for A Functional Biology of Crop Plants
Some optimal exploration latitude is undoubtedly definable. (4) Invasion-proofing: In competitive growth, an adaptive strategy must be stable against invasion by competing plants that "cheat" in resource use. See Sec. B, item 2, on evolutionarily stable strategies. (5) Adequacy of selection pressure: The specific environmental state under consideration, in which a maximal internal capacity is demanded, must occur frequently enough to make it cost-effective to carry the adaptation potential (Sec.
1). Cumulative or catastrophic long-distance transfers of nutrients (Fig. 2) are important only over long periods - though phosphorus losses from the land are apparently redressed only at great intervals of time by rare geological uplifts of sediments. Even the most mobile of the alternative forms of a nutrient, such as nitrate for N, are acquired by plants only by extensive root exploration of soil volumes. Some soil microbial transformations such as nitrification involve complex cost:benefit trades for both plants and microbes: nitrate is more mobile than the original ammonium, and a less extensive root system suffices at lower capital cost, but nitrate use incurs costs in operational energy to reduce it back to ammonium.
The heaviness of arrows indicates roughly the relative rates of the respective processes, averaged over seasons and over micro site variations. F ~ . md "'CI \l, h)r mu:'rub'OIl -- ... I~" .. lnl and 0r&iln death Rou! ,---ORGA Ie AND I ORGA Ie COMPOU D OF MI ERAL NUTRIE TS Effective Lo.. es and Kinetic Barriers IN OLUBLE AI. ---GASEOUS N 2, N20 (LOliil 10 ;;url MICROBIAL BIOMASS OTHER LOSSES mass. Simply, N must reach the oxidation state +3 in plant tissue, principally as amino compounds, R-NH2• Charge-neutral uptake and internal reduction reactions generate either OH- or H+ ions to be liberated back to the soil (Raven and Smith, 1976).
A Functional Biology of Crop Plants by Vincent P. Gutschick