By David M. Freidenreich
The medieval Islamic global comprised a large choice of religions. whereas participants and groups during this global pointed out themselves with specific faiths, limitations among those teams have been obscure and from time to time nonexistent. instead of easily borrowing or lending customs, items, and notions to each other, the peoples of the Mediterranean sector interacted inside of a typical tradition. Beyond spiritual Borders provides subtle and infrequently innovative reviews of the methods Jewish, Christian, and Muslim thinkers drew rules and thought from outdoor the boundaries in their personal spiritual communities.
Each essay during this assortment covers a key point of interreligious relationships in Mediterranean lands throughout the first six centuries of Islam. those experiences concentrate on the cultural context of trade, the impression of alternate, and the standards motivating alternate among adherents of other religions. Essays handle the impression of the shared Arabic language at the move of information, reassess the constraints imposed through Muslim rulers on Christian and Jewish matters, and exhibit the necessity to give some thought to either Jewish and Muslim works within the research of Andalusian philosophy. Case reports at the effect of alternate learn particular literary, non secular, and philosophical strategies that crossed spiritual borders. In every one case, components local to at least one non secular team and initially overseas to a different grew to become totally at domestic in either. the amount concludes by means of contemplating why yes rules crossed spiritual strains whereas others didn't, and the way particular figures curious about such tactics understood their very own roles within the move of ideas.
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Extra info for Beyond Religious Borders: Interaction and Intellectual Exchange in the Medieval Islamic World
It has long been recognized that Christians were part of this process; Judeo-Arabic Civilization 29 this point need not be elaborated here. The parts played by Jews, Christians, and early Muslims have been described in very pertinent terms with regard to the development of the concept of early Islamic law by the late Norman Calder: The question of when this cluster of Arabic terms emerged as part of the self-expression of Jews and Christians is unclear. But, whatever model is adopted for the emergence and early development of Islam, it is necessary to acknowledge the co-existence or prior existence of Arabic-speaking Jewish and Christian communities.
In this essay, I will argue against the common view. While during the first century of Islam one cannot speak of a consistent policy adopted by Muslim authorities toward the dhimmīs and enforced upon them, this situation changed considerably starting in the second century and especially from the third century of Islam onward. During this period, Muslim authorities promulgated a crystallized set of rules that, in contrast to the above opinions, was uniformly enforced by various caliphs and rulers.
20 There is also conflicting evidence deriving from the time of ʿUmar b. 21 Although it has been claimed (without due evidence) that some of these prohibitions may have been ascribed to ʿUmar b. 22 The following tradition adduced by Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb (d. 798) in his Kitāb al-kharāj regarding the ghiyār emphasizes the significance attributed by ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz to the enforcement of 34 M i l k a L e v y-R u b i n these regulations. It is transmitted by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Thābit b. Thūbān, a well-known Damascene transmitter,23 who heard it from his father:24 ʿUmar b.
Beyond Religious Borders: Interaction and Intellectual Exchange in the Medieval Islamic World by David M. Freidenreich