By Robert R. McCrae PhD, Paul T. Costa Jr. PhD
Up to date and revised with an emphasis on balance in character via maturity. The Five-Factor concept is defined and contains new facts, rather cross-cultural and longitudinal findings. earlier variation: c1990.
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Extra info for Personality in adulthood: a five-factor theory perspective
Humanistic psychologies (Maddi & Costa, 1972), which arose in reaction to what were perceived as the irrational and mechanistic biases of psychoanalytic and behavioral theories, emphasize humankind’s capacity to think, love, and grow. Each of these approaches has made valuable contributions to personality psychology, and we say more about them later, especially in Chapter 8. Our current concern, however, is to draw attention away from them to an alternative approach to personality that we feel deserves more credit than it is normally given.
Psychoanalytic theories of personality (Freud, 1933, 1900/1938) stress the individual’s unconscious motivations, which must be inferred from such indirect sources as dreams, slips of the tongue, and fantasies. , Bandura, 1977) have acknowledged the role of cognitive processes in shaping behavior. Humanistic psychologies (Maddi & Costa, 1972), which arose in reaction to what were perceived as the irrational and mechanistic biases of psychoanalytic and behavioral theories, emphasize humankind’s capacity to think, love, and grow.
J. P. Guilford continued his factor analytic studies of personality and eventually developed an inventory of 10 traits, the Guilford–Zimmerman Temperament Survey, or GZTS (J. S. Guilford, W. S. Zimmerman, & J. P. Guilford, 1976). Another factor analyst, Hans Eysenck, noted that Extraversion was one of two fundamental dimensions that recurred in analyses of many personality inventories. The second dimension was emotional instability or maladjustment; because it was seen most clearly in individuals traditionally diagnosed as neurotics, he called this dimension Neuroticism.
Personality in adulthood: a five-factor theory perspective by Robert R. McCrae PhD, Paul T. Costa Jr. PhD