Download PDF by Casey O'Callaghan: Sounds: A Philosophical Theory

By Casey O'Callaghan

ISBN-10: 0199215928

ISBN-13: 9780199215928

Imaginative and prescient dominates philosophical wondering notion, and theorizing approximately event in cognitive technology has generally concerned about a visible version. In a thorough departure from demonstrated perform, Casey O'Callaghan offers a scientific remedy of sound and sound event, and exhibits how wondering audition and appreciating the relationships among a number of experience modalities can improve our realizing of conception and the mind.Sounds proposes a unique thought of sounds and auditory conception. opposed to the generally authorized philosophical view that sounds are one of the secondary or good characteristics, O'Callaghan argues that, on any perceptually believable account, sounds are occasions. yet this doesn't suggest that sounds are waves that propagate via a medium, corresponding to air or water. fairly, sounds are occasions that occur in one's atmosphere at or close to the items and happenings that carry them approximately. This account captures the best way sounds basically are creatures of time, and situates sounds in a global populated through goods and occasions that experience value for us. Sounds usually are not airy, mysterious entities.O'Callaghan's account of sounds and their conception discloses a long way larger style one of the sorts of issues we understand than conventional perspectives recognize. yet extra importantly, investigating sounds and audition demonstrates that contemplating different feel modalities teaches what lets now not differently study from considering completely concerning the visible. Sounds articulates a robust account of echoes, reverberation, Doppler results, and perceptual constancies that surpasses the explanatory richness of other theories, and in addition unearths a couple of spectacular cross-modal perceptual illusions. O'Callaghan argues that such illusions show that the perceptual modalities can't be thoroughly understood in isolation, and that the visuocentric version for theorizing approximately belief --according to which perceptual modalities are discrete modes of expertise and self sufficient domain names of philosophical and clinical inquiry--ought to be deserted.

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Example text

We have no reason, however, to doubt that awareness of the durations of sound-producing events is veridical. Such awareness regularly grounds true perceptually based beliefs. It follows that this case constitutes an instance of veridical mediated awareness that is mediated by an illusion. It is important here to keep in mind that the mediation in question is of a sort to which the subject has access. It is not, for example, the kind of mediatedness in question when we say that hearing is mediated by activity in the cochlea or auditory nerve.

This intuitive philosophical picture finds empirical support from research on audition. According to our best understanding of the central task of auditory perceiving, sounds are the particulars that ground the grouping and binding of audible qualities. Perceiving sounds requires discerning coherent and significant streams of auditory information from an intertwined set of signals bound up with irrelevant ‘noise’. Audition researcher Albert Bregman (1990: 3–6) likens this problem, which he calls auditory scene analysis, to determining the number, size, location, and identity of items on a lake by observing just the motions of a pair of handkerchiefs moved by the waves that travel up two narrow channels dug at the lake’s edge, as in Figure 1.

A contrast with the case of listening with headphones illustrates that ordinary hearing presents sounds not just as in some direction but also as at a distance. Headphone listening differs from ordinary hearing in that sounds seem to come from somewhere between the subject’s ears, as in Figure 2, and not from the environment. Gelfand describes headphone listening as involving intracranial lateralization: ‘Sounds presented through a pair of earphones are perceived to come from within the head, and their source appears to be lateralized along a ² See, for example, the work of Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, including (2001a, b; 2004; 2005) and Colburn et al.

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Sounds: A Philosophical Theory by Casey O'Callaghan

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